Notes

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7. Ency. Brit., 11th ed., “Petronius.”

8. Richlin, Amy: The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor. Yale University Press: New Haven, 1983. 44.

9. Verstraete, Beert C. (1987) 100-101.

10. Ibid. 96-97

11. MacMullen (1982) 493-494. ?? MacMullen, Ramsay, "The Epigraphic Habit in the Roman Empire," AJPh 103 (1982) 233-46.

12. MacMullen (1966) 46?48.

13. Rawson (1986) 27, 29.

14. “Veyne [1978] pp. 52 and 62 n.6, denies the whole notion of “l’amour contre-nature” in antiquity; still more emphatically, Boswell {1980} pp. 11-16, 21 n.40 (having to translate ‘unseemly’, though it is applied to things like cannibalism!), 109?113 and elsewhere denying any perception of homosexuality as unnatural. He does not mention the probative words in the very lines he has cited for other purposes, e.g. pp. 58 (Plut.), 63 (Dion. Hal.), and 82 (Juv.), 77 (Epict.), and 152 (Ovid).” MacMullen (1982) 494.

15. Foucault (1986)

16.

17. MacMullen (1966) 141.

18. Women's Life in Greece and Rome (1982), Mary Lefkowitz, Maureen B Fant (eds.) Johns Hopkins University Press

19. Gibbon (1899) IV, Ch. XLIV, 509-510.

20. Fox (1987) 57.

21. Babut, D. (1963) "Les stoiciens et l'amour" Revue des Etudes Greques 76: 55,60.

22. Dynes (1985) 11.

23. Richlin (1983) 258 fn. 2.”At times Boswell [1980] ignores the difference felt by the Romans to exist between pederasty and “pathic” homosexuality (72), though he explains it himself (74-75); in his discussion of the lex Scantinia he speaks of ‘homosexuality’ without distinguishing between slave and ingenuus (68-70), as if the sexual use of slaves implies that the sexual use of the freeborn must be legal, or socially approved.” See also MacMullen (1966) 84 ff.

24. MacMullen (1982) 499.

25. Verstraete (1987) 105. 26. Ibid. 102.

27. Veyne (1987) 2.

28. Fox (1987) 341.

29. Veyne (1987) 54.

30. MacMullen (1982) 500.

31. MacMullen (1966) 115-120.

32. Licht (1932) 425-426.

33. Cambridge Ancient History XII 582.

34. Dynes (1985) 37.

35. Foucault (1986) 232.

36. Gibbon (1899) I 316.

37. Veyne (1987) 178.

38. Gibbon (1899) VI 406.

39. Gibbon (1899) VI 404.

40. Licht (1932) 423.

41. Cambridge Ancient History XII 620.

42.

43. Harl (1987) 83.

44. Cambridge Ancient History XII 267-268.

45. Ibid. 189.

46. Gibbon (1898) X 561.

47. Lefkowitz (1982) 137.

48. Foucault (1986) 39.

49. Ibid. 41.

50. Ibid. 48.

51. Ibid. 99.

52. Ibid. 57.

53. Ibid. 140-141.

54. Vatin (1970) 203-206.

55. Ibid. 77.

56. Rousselle (1988) 64.

57. Schweitzer (1906).

58. Crompton (1985) 259-260.

59. Parkes (1934) 110-111.

60. Johansson (1984) following Schulthess (1922).

61. Goody (1983) 87. M. Stern in Ben-Sasson (1976) 251.

62. Dynes (1985) 19.

63. Smith (1978) vii.

64. Harnack (1957).

65. Smith (1978) 2.

66. Johansson (1981) 1-7.

67. Maccoby (1984) 39-42.

68. Cohn (1975) xvi-xvii.

69. Ibid. 1?4; 7.

70. Ibid. 9.

71. Rudolph (1987) 59?61.  

72. Ibid. 270?272.

73. Cumont (1911) viii?xii; xxi?xxiii.  

74. Parkes (1934) 84.  

75. Johanssen (1981) 8.  

76. Dynes in Johansson (1981) 9.

77. Lauritsen in Johansson (1981) 18.

78. Brown in Veyne (1987) 260, 263, 266.

79. Ibid. 287.

80. Ibid. 289.

81. Ibid. 304.

82. Ibid. 290. Ibid. 298.

83. Symonds (1873) I 292.

84. Ibid. II 162.

85. De Ridder and Deonna (1924) 110.

86. Fox (1986) 669-670.

87. Ibid.

88. Smith (1978) 1?2.

89. Ibid. 2.

90. Bernay-Vilbert (1975) 453 to the contrary.

92. Brown (1967) 390.

93. Dynes (1985) 12-13.

94. Percy in Dynes 1990) 226.

95. Laistner (1951) 87, 94. 96. Ibid. 110.

97. Boswell (1980) 347.

98. Brown in Veyne (1987) 298.

99. Percy in Dynes (1990) 227.

100. Ibid. 40.

101. Oxford Classical Dictionary (1970) 1056.

102. Laistner (1951) 81.

Louis Crompton (1985), Byron and Greek Love: Homophobia in 19th Century England, Berkeley: University of California Press & London: Faber.

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